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Material Definition of Terms


The definition of "Warp" is the threads attached lengthwise in a loom to be crossed by the weft.


The definition of "Weft" is the horizontal threads woven across a warp to make a fabric, also known as Woof.


The definition of "Polyurethane" is any group of thermoplastic polymers used in coatings, insulation, adhesives, foams and fibres. The term "polyurethane elastomers" includes such diverse products as thermoplastic polyurethane, cast elastomers and Reaction Injection Moulded (RIM) products. Thermoplastic Polyurethane Major Applications include, Architectural Glass Lamination, Auto-Body Side Moulding, Automotive Lumbar Supports, Caster Wheels, Cattle Tags, Constant Velocity Boots (Automotive), Drive Belts, Film and Sheet, Fire Hose Liner, Flexible Tubing, Food Processing Equipment, Footwear - sport shoe soles, Hydraulic Hoses, Hydraulic Seals ,Inflatable Rafts, In-Line Skates, Magnetic Media, Medical Tubing / (+IV) Biomedical Apparatus, Mining Screens, Sporting Goods, Swim Fins and Goggles, Coated Fabrics, Wire and Cable Coatings. Further technical information is available at: Polyurethanes

Tensile Strength

The definition of "Tensile" relates to tension, capable of being drawn out, stretched or pulled out of shape. Testing textile tensile material properties applies to yarns, twisted threads and cords, flat structured specimens such as fleece, knitwear and fabrics. Common tests include seam slippage resistance , tear propagation, needle tear out resistance, and grab method.

Breaking Strength & Elongation by the Grab Test per ASTM D5034

The grab and modified grab test procedures determine breaking strength and elongation of wet or dry textile fabric samples. A grab test is really a tensile test where the centre of the specimen width is gripped in the clamps. The modified grab test is similar - lateral slits are made mid-length of the specimen severing all yarns bordering that portion of the specimen held between the two clamps. The grab test applies to woven, non-woven, and felted fabrics, while the modified grab test is best used for woven fabrics. The test is not recommended for glass fabrics, knitted fabrics or high stretch fabrics.

The grab test determines the effective strength of the fabric: the strength of the yarns in a specified width with fabric assistance from the adjacent yarns. It does not reflect the strength of the yarns actually gripped between clamps.

The modified grab test is applicable to the determination of the breaking force of fabrics with constructions in which the application of tensile stress on ravel strip specimens produces further unraveling. It is particularly applicable to high-strength fabrics.

A four-inch wide specimen must be mounted in the centre of upper and lower grips and force applied until the specimen breaks. There are two types of specimens used, grab and modified grab.

Grab test: the front grip face must measure 1 inch by 1 or 2 inches, the longer dimension along the vertical.

Modified grab test: the front grip face must be at least 1 inch by 2 inches, with the longer dimension along the vertical.

Tear Strength

The definition of "Tear" in these tests is to make a hole in the fabric.
Tear Strength of Fabrics by Falling-Pendulum Type (Elmendorf) Apparatus as per ASTM D1424

This test method covers the determination of the force required to propagate a single-rip tear starting from a cut in a fabric and using a falling-pendulum type (Elmendorf) apparatus.

This test method applies to most fabrics including woven, layered blankets, napped pile, blanket, and air bag fabrics, provided the fabric does not tear in the direction crosswise to the direction of the force application during the test. The fabrics may be untreated, heavily sized, coated, resin-treated, or otherwise treated. Instructions are provided for testing specimens with, or without, wetting.

Further technical information is available at: ASTM International Standards Worldwide


The definition of "Denier" is a measure of fibre fineness in silk and some artificial fibres, such as Nylon, equal to one gram per 9,000 metres of yarn. Denier is a measurement of fibre weight used to describe the thickness of a thread or yarn. The higher the denier, the larger the fibres and the stronger the material.

Information on Thermoset Polymers and Thermoplastic Polymers

MatWeb -  This page allows you to quickly access all of the polymers/plastics, metals, and ceramics/other engineering materials in the MatWeb material property database.

White Mountain Backpacks™, travel backpacks, hybrid backpacks, hike packs, daypacks, designers, wholesale direct, backpack fitting specialists, anatomically correct quality backpacks at the lowest prices. Backpack fitting experts specialising in FREE CUSTOM FITTING of internal frame travel packs, hike packs, and framed daypacks, including any brand purchased from other suppliers. To correctly customise and contour the Internal Staves of online orders, all we need is the correct Torso Length of your back. We offer premium quality, anatomically correct, high functioning backpacks at extraordinarily low prices when compared to any high quality competitor product, we guarantee exceptional performance, fit, comfort, and quality.