White Mountain™ Design
White Mountain™ material was originally sourced from KOLON
Industries, Inc. in Korea. However Kodra is now no longer a trademark
belonging to KOLON Industries, Inc. and the name Kodra is now used
for any textured nylon manufactured by numerous factories in Asia,
which means the quality can no longer be easily substantiated. For
this reason all new White Mountain™ backpacks will be manufactured
with Invista Cordura materials. All qualified CORDURA® fabrics have
been validated to ensure they meet the durability and quality standards
of the CORDURA® brand. INVISTA works closely with its worldwide
authorized mills and converters to ensure consistency of fabric
quality and fitness for the intended use.
White Mountain™ originally used YBS Zippers in all backpacks
which were branded White Mountain, however all new products will
have YKK Zippers with the YKK Brand.
White Mountain™ Buckles, D-Rings and Clips used in the
backpacks construction are supplied by National Molding Duraflex
or Woo Jin Duraflex (A joint venture company of National Molding).
These buckles are virtually unbreakable, non-slip, and easy to adjust.
White Mountain™ use webbing of the highest grade Nylon
or Polypropylene and heat cut to prevent separation at the ends.
To provide added strength, all stitched areas subject to stress
have Back-Stitching, Bar-Tack stitching, Cross Stitching, or equivalent
White Mountain™ use various high quality nylon thread in
all stitching of backpacks to provide durability, strength, and
White Mountain™ backpacks material is double (twin) straight
stitched at eight to ten stitches per inch. However, there is a
direct correlation between thread type and size, material type and
weight, needle size, and stitch type in determining the stitching
The backpack overall length is determined by the Internal Save
length plus 5cm to 10cm depending on the backpack design.
Most backpack manufactures use 5 standard stave lengths, 50cm,
55cm, 60cm, 65cm and 70cm. These standard stave lengths can vary
by as much as 2cm and would equate to an average Optimum Torso Length
of approximately 38cm (50cm stave), 42cm (55cm stave), 46cm (60cm
stave), and 50cm (65cm stave). White Mountain™ use only 4
stave lengths from 50cm to a maximum stave length of 65cm.
In measuring numerous body types and designing and studying backpacks
manufactured internationally, we are able to establish some standard
dimensions for internal frame backpacks. One notable standard we
use is the length of the base of the backpack or bottom section
of the Internal Stave. The bottom of the Internal Stave is measured
at 18cm (13cm when the Internal Stave is modified to fit a longer
Torso Length) which is the longer average length of the lower back.
The Internal Stave would not be placed higher than 5cm from the
base of the backpack which provides a height of approximately 25cm
for the lower section or lower compartment of the backpack.
The point where the top of the Hip Belt Wing crosses level with
the hipbone or Iliac Crest is measured on the majority of people
as between 11cm (4 3/8") to 14cm (5 1/2"), with the standard Hip
Belt position set at the average length of 12.5cm (5 0/0"). We then
use the average length of 12.5cm from the base of the Internal Stave
to the top of the Hip Belt Wing. The point at which the Hip Belt
meets the top of the Lumbar Pad on the backpack can be as much as
25cm from the base of the stave. However, the point at which the
Hip Belt crosses the hipbone or Iliac Crest is 12.5cm or 5 0/0"
from the base of the stave. When wearing the backpack the Hip Belt
can be located 1.50cm higher or lower than the Iliac Crest depending
on the individual Torso Length
The overall straight length of Internal Staves after subtracting
the 11cm (4 3/8") to 14cm (5 1/2") is how we calculate the Optimum
Torso Length for each Internal Stave length.
For total stability the backpack should be symmetrical, and to
counter balance leg movement our arms need to move freely. For practical
purposes such as moving through scrub with a backpack, or through
people and city obstacles, the width of the backpack should not
extend beyond the width of the body. Well designed backpacks are
wider at the base (hip width) and taper to the shoulder (chest width)
conforming to the natural shape of the body. Generally in travel
packs the width is more square and wider at the shoulders but still
not extending beyond body width.
To determine the backpack depth we use the backpack length and
width to calculate the back depth for the capacity we are seeking.
Although we are not limited in the depth of the pack, the greater
the depth of the backpack the more leverage on the back. This is
why we do not construct a backpack in Extra Large (Higher Capacity)
with a small stave length of 50cm, or a Net Torso Length of 38cm
or 15". There is a natural tendency to lean forward when carrying
weight on our backs, however to prevent lower back injury we expect
this forward angle to be less than 10 degrees.
We first need to consider the areas of the back that are best
suited to comfortably bear weight, or the areas of our body that
have the best muscle cover. The upper buttocks extending outwards
offer the best lower back support in the hip area. In the upper
area, either side of the spine on the upper back, and the front
of the chest offer the best support. It must be noted that the lumbar
position near our spine is poorly padded and we would avoid placing
weight directly on this area. The correct position of the Internal
Staves is then tapered at the lower back, either side of the spine
or lumbar region at the base of the backpack and then extending
upwards and outwards to the padded shoulder area either side of
the spine on the upper back.